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2.4 Experimental equipment

The following major equipment is now operational:

I. High-pressure apparatus

5000 tonne multianvil press (25 GPa, 3000 K)
1200 tonne multianvil press (25 GPa, 3000 K)
1000 tonne multianvil press (25 GPa, 3000 K)
500 tonne multianvil press (20 GPa, 3000 K)
3 piston-cylinders (0.5" and 0.75"; 3 GPa, 2100 K)
1 piston-cylinder (5 GPa, 2100 K)
Cold-seal vessels (700 MPa, 1000 K, gas & H2O), TZM vessels (300 MPa, 1400 K), rapid-quench equipment
An internally heated autoclave (1 GPa, ca. 1800 K) and a Paterson high-pressure and temperature deformation apparatus should become operational during 1999.
II. Structural analysis
2 X-ray powder diffractometers
Single-crystal X-ray cameras
X-ray powder microdiffractometer
2 automated single-crystal X-ray diffractometers
2 Mössbauer spectrometers (1.5 - 1300 K)
Mössbauer millispectrometer
Variable-pressure-temperature Mössbauer spectrometer
FTIR spectrometer with IR microscope
200 kV analytical FEG transmission electron microscope
3 high-resolution solid-state NMR spectrometers (100, 200, 300 MHz)
Raman spectrometer
III. Chemical analysis
Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe; fully-automated with 10-crystal, 4 spectrometer configuration, BSE detector and capability for light elements
ICP AES sequential spectrometer
Karl-Fischer titration (H2O analysis)
IV. In-situ determination of properties
2 calorimeters (77 - 1000 K scanning; 700 - 2200 K drop and scanning)
2 dilatometers (to 1800 K; viscosity by penetration, parallel-plate, fibre elongation and beam-bending; thermal expansivity measurements)
Diamond anvil cells for single crystal X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Raman scattering, infrared and optical spectroscopy (including facilities for hydrothermal studies)
1-atm furnaces (to 2000 K, gas mixing) including apparatus for viscometry, densitometry and galvanic thermo-chemistry, centrifuge studies
Rotation viscometer
Solid medium Griggs-Blacic deformation apparatus
1-atm high-temperature creep apparatus
Splat quencher
Fragmentation bomb and chamber for studies of explosive volcanism
2 high frequency ultrasonic interferometers (crystalline and molten materials)
Gigahertz ultrasonic interferometer and an interface adaptor to resistance-heated diamond-anvil cells
Heating stage for fluid inclusion studies
Impedance/gain-phase analyzer for electrical conductivity studies
Internally heated autoclave for centrifuge studies
The Geoinstitut has access to an analytical scanning electron microscope and to the university computer centre. The Institute is provided with well equipped machine shops, electronic workshop and sample preparation laboratory.

Bayerisches Geoinstitut, Universität Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Deutschland
Tel: +49-(0) 921 55 3700 / 3766, Fax: +49-(0) 921 55 3769, E-mail: bayerisches.geoinstitut(at)